copyright act

Second Circuit Holds that Statutory Right to Adapt Software Preempts Contractual Terms

A recent Second Circuit decision, Universal Instruments Corp. v. Microsystems Engineering Inc. (2d Cir. 2019) provides important lessons for parties involved in negotiating software and other technology development contracts.

One key holding is that where the copyrighted software was licensed to the customer pursuant to terms of a development contract, then the customer had a statutory right, under Section 117(a) of the Copyright Act, to have a different developer modify and adapt the software for the customer’s use.  And, that statutory right pre-empted any claim that the contract limited such adaptation rights. 

The Second Circuit also construed license terms to allow both MSEI and the second developer to use the software anywhere in the world to service MSEI’s system.  

Together, these rulings meant that once the developer had created and licensed the software, it was powerless to stop the customer from employing other companies to use, adapt, and modify the software, at least for the customer’s own business. 

Parties involved in negotiating development licenses should be aware that the Copyright Act may vest additional rights in a customer beyond that provided in the contract – and that contrary contracts terms will be preempted by the law.

New York Federal Court Holds Embedding Photos May Infringe Copyright

A New York federal court in Goldman v. Breitbart News has held that the common internet practice of “embedding,” also referred to as “in-linking” infringes the copyright of content that is embedded. 

A very common practice for a website involves including a link to another site where content (articles, photographs) is stored, and then displayed on the website.  The content it is never stored on the linking site but rather on the linked-to website. 

In 2007, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals held in Perfect 10 v. Google that this practice does not infringe on the exclusive “display” right in the Copyright Act. But in February a federal court in New York rejected the Ninth Circuit’s view and held that embedding infringes on the right of display. 

Plaintiff Justin Goldman, a photographer, took a photo of quarterback Tom Brady and posted it to his Snapchat page.  The photo then spread around the internet, and was eventually posted to Twitter.  The defendants – who include Breitbart News, Time, Gannett and the Boston Globe – wrote articles about Brady (and his involvement in the Boston Celtics recruiting Kevin Durant), and then embedded the Twitter post, displaying the photograph of Brady with the articles.   Goldman sued for copyright infringement, asserting that this practice infringed on his exclusive right to “display” the photos.

            This decision has the potential for a major impact on many websites and blogs, which often link to content on other sites.  These sites now must consider whether they need a license to use linked-to content.  A further thing to consider is whether sites that allow uploading need to amend their Terms of Use to permit linking of some kind.